DEFINITIONS OF GIS
Toolbox based definitions
(i) GIS is a powerful set of tools for collecting, storing, retrieving at will, transforming and displaying spatial data from the real world (Burrough 1986)
(ii) GIS is a system for capturing, storing, checking, manipulating, analysing and displaying data which are spatially referenced to the Earth (Department of Environment 1987)
(iii) GIS is an information technology which stores, analyses and displays both spatial and non-spatial data (Parker 1988)
(i) GIS is a database system in which most of the data are spatially indexed and upon which a set of procedures operated in order to answer questions about spatial entities in the database.
(Smith et al 1987)
(ii) GIS is any manual or computer based set of procedures used to store and manipulate geographically referenced data. (Aronoff 1989)
Organization based definitions
(i) GIS is an automated set of functions that provides professionals with advanced capabilities for the storage, retrieval, manipulation and display of geographically located data.
(Ozemoy, Smith and Sicherman 1981)
(ii) GIS is an institutional entity reflecting an organizational structure that integrates technology with a database, expertise and continuing financial support over time. (Carter 1989)
(iii) GIS is a decision supporting system involving the integration of spatially referenced data in a problem solving environment. (Cowen 1988)