Monday, November 9, 2015

IMPORTANT OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

Geographic coordinate systems contain DATUMS that are based on SPHEROIDS
An AFFINE transformation is commonly used in GIS to transform maps between coordinate systems
The process of converting a newly digitised map into projected coordinates is called MAP TO MAP TRANSFORMATION
Image to map transformation is also called GEOREFERENCING
GIS is differentiated from other information systems due to its SPATIAL ANALYSIS FUNCTIONS
The two fundamental functions of a GIS are: (i) GENERATION OF MAPS and (ii) GENERATION OF TABULAR REPORTS
Spatial analysis builds operational procedures on SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MAP FEATURES
If no spatial information is required to ask a question, the query is called an ATTRIBUTE QUERY
The design of analysis depends upon the PURPOSE OF STUDY
The use of GIS to inquire geographic features and retrieve associated attribute information is called IDENTIFICATION
The tools that characterise spatial variability are: SPATIAL AUTOCORRELATION FUNCTION & VARIOGRAM
Spatial analysis can be INDUCTIVE, DEDUCTIVE or NORMATIVE
The ability to CALCULATE & MANIPULATE DISTANCES forms the basis of spatial analysis
Point patterns can be identified as CLUSTERED, DISPERSED or RANDOM
The six categories of spatial analysis are: QUERIES & REASONING, MEASUREMENTS, TRANSFORMATIONS, DESCRIPTIVE SUMMARIES, OPTIMIZATION and HYPOTHESIS TESTING
The four interpolation methods are: INVERSE DISTANCE WEIGHTING (IDW), TRIANGULAR IRREGULAR NETWORKS (TIN), REGULARISED SPLINES WITH TENSION (RST) and KRIGING
Operators associated with connectivity are: NETWORK ANALYSIS, DIFFUSION MODELS, CELLULAR AUTOMATA and AGENT BASED MODELS
The two connectivity functions widely used in GIS are: (i) CONTIGUITY and (ii) SPREADING
The four parameters used to measure proximity are: (i) TARGET LOCATIONS, (ii) UNIT OF MEASUREMENT, (iii) FUNCTION TO CALCULATE PROXIMITY & (iv) AREA TO BE ANALYSED
A common type of proximity analysis is ESTABLISHMENT OF A BUFFER ZONE
The three principal types of GIS analysis performed by networking are: (i) PREDICTION OF LOADING, (ii) RATE OPTIMENTATION & (iii) RESOURCE ALLOCATION
INTERVISIBILITY FUNCTIONS rely on digital elevation data to define surrounding topography
A GIS application can be classified into: (i) FOUR DIMENSIONAL GIS, (ii) MULTIMEDIA GIS, (iii) WEB GIS & (iv) VIRTUAL REALITY GIS
The four categories under which GIS functions fall are: (i) RETRIEVAL/CLASSIFICATION/MEASUREMENT FUNCTIONS, (ii) OVERLAY FUNCTIONS, (iii) NEIGHBOURHOOD FUNCTIONS & CONNECTIVITY FUNCTIONS
Vector methods of spatial analysis are good for SPARSE DATA SETS
Raster methods of spatial analysis are good for GRID CALCULATIONS
Examples of neighbourhood functions are: AVERAGE, DIVERSITY, MINIMUM/MAXIMUM & TOTAL
Five steps involved in cartographic modeling are: (i) STATEMENT OF PROBLEM OR OBJECTIVES, (ii) STATEMENT OF CONDITIONS OR ASSUMPTIONS (iii) METHODOLOGY (iv) IMPLEMENTATION & (v) EVALUATION
Raster data analysis is based on CELLS & RASTERS
Reclassification is also called RECODING or TRANSFORMING
The two types of global functions are: (i) EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE & (ii) WEIGHTED DISTANCE
The four groups of mathematical functions provided by raster calculator are: (i) LOGARITHMIC, (ii) ARITHMETIC, (iii) TRIGONOMETRIC and (iv) EXPONENTIAL
The four major reasons requiring reclassification are: (i) TO REPLACE VALUES, (ii) TO GROUP VALUES, (iii) TO RECLASSIFY VALUES & (iv) TO SET SPECIFIC CELLS TO A VALUE
The two sub-systems in a knowledge based system are: (i) KNOWLEDGE BASE & (ii) AN INFERENCE ENGINE
Knowledge based systems were first developed by ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE RESEARCHERS
A GIS model may be descriptive or PRESCRIPTIVE; DETERMINISTIC or stochastic; STATIC or dynamic; deductive or INDUCTIVE
The five types of digital elevation data are: (i) DIGITAL SURFACE MODEL (DSM), (ii) DIGITAL TERRAIN MODEL (DTM), (iii) BATHYMETRIC SURFACE, (iv) MIXED SURFACE and (v) POINT CLOUD ELEVATION FILE
The process of detecting and removing errors by editing is called CLEANING
Errors are classified into (i) ENTITY ERRORS, (ii) ATTRIBUTE ERRORS & (iii) ENTITY-ATTRIBUTE AGREEMENT ERRORS
Undershoots and overshoots are types of DANGLING NODES
Remotely sensed data are used to measure several environmental parameters like: (i) SURFACE & CLOUD TOP REFLECTANCES,(ii) ALBEDO,(iii) AREA AND POTENTIAL YIELD OF CROP TYPES & (iv) HEIGHT AND DENSITY OF FOREST STANDS
Satellite scanners operate in either a SWEEP mode or a PUSHBROOM mode
An overlay operation can be classified as (i) POINT-IN-POLYGON, (ii) LINE-IN-POLYGON, or (iii) POLYGON-IN-POLYGON
An overlay operation is called INTERSECT if it uses the and connector
An overlay operation is called UNION if it uses the or connector
An overlay operation is called IDENTITY if it uses a combination of the and and or connectors
An overlay operation is called DIFFERENCE or symmetrical difference if it uses the XOR connector
The most common type of output of a GIS is a MAP
The five types of vector data analysis are: (i) BUFFERING, (ii) OVERLAY, (iii) MEASURING DISTANCES, (iv) SPATIAL STATISTICS FOR PATTERN ANALYSIS & (v) TOOLS FOR MAP MANIPULATION